We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different languages. The fol- .. portconfig command line tool or the YaST Support module. Line 36 • Command Line Parameters of the YaST Modules 6 Managing Software with . Special Features in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server CUPS and Firewall .. The final PDF is formatted through FOP from Apache. Administration Guide. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12 SP4 Line 36 • Command Line Parameters of the YaST Modules 6 Managing Software with .. The final PDF is formatted through FOP from Apache Software.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
This section gives insight into the most important commands. There are many more commands than listed in this chapter. Along with the individual commands, . Modules 36 • Command Line Parameters of YaST Modules 6 Managing Software .. The final PDF is formatted through FOP from Apache. We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different languages. The .. supportconfig command line tool or the YaST Support module. Both will collect.
In ncurses mode, Enter must be pressed after a selection in the navigation tree in order to show the selected dialog. This is an intentional behavior to save time consuming redraws when browsing through the navigation tree. Keys like Alt or Shift can also be occupied by the settings of the terminal. For example, Esc H replaces Alt - H.
First press Esc , then press H. Restriction of Function Keys The F keys are also used for functions. Certain function keys might be occupied by the terminal and may not be available for YaST.
However, the Alt key combinations and function keys should always be fully available on a pure text console. To get a list of YaST command line options, enter: yast -h 3.
Start the network module, for example, with yast lan. If you need a command-line based software management utility with functionality beyond what YaST provides, consider using zypper.
This new utility uses the same software management library that is also the foundation for the YaST package manager. The basic usage of Zypper is covered in Section 6. Not all modules have command line support. Chapter 4. Requirements 4. Using Snapper to Undo System Changes 4.
Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots 4. Limitations 4. Frequently Asked Questions 4. Abstract Being able to do file system snapshots providing the ability to do rollbacks on Linux is a feature that was often requested in the past.
Snapper, in conjunction with the Btrfs file system or thin-provisioned LVM volumes now fills that gap. Btrfs, a new copy-on-write file system for Linux, supports file system snapshots a copy of the state of a subvolume at a certain point of time of subvolumes one or more separately mountable file systems within each physical partition.
Snapper lets you manage these snapshots. Snapper comes with a command line and a YaST interface. Before and after running a YaST module or zypper, a snapshot is created. Snapper lets you compare the two snapshots and provides means to revert the differences between the two snapshots.
The tools also provide system backups by creating hourly snapshots of the system subvolumes.
Requirements Since Btrfs is the only file system on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server supporting snapshots, it is required on all partitions or subvolumes you want to snapshot. Snapshots and Disk Space When a snapshot is created, both the snapshot and the original point to the same blocks in the file system.
So, initially a snapshot does not occupy additional disk space. If data in the original file system is modified, changed data blocks are copied while the old data blocks are kept for the snapshot. Therefore, a snapshot occupies the same amount of space as the data modified. So, over time, the amount of space a snapshot allocates, constantly grows. As a consequence, deleting files from a Btrfs file system containing snapshots may not free disk space! Note: Snapshot Location Snapshots always reside on the same partition or subvolume that has been snapshotted.
As a result, partitions containing snapshots need to be larger than normal partitions.
The exact amount strongly depends on the number of snapshots you keep and the amount of data modifications. As a rule of thumb you should consider using twice the size than you normally would.
Older snapshots occupy more space than recent ones. Displaying the amount of disk space a snapshot allocates is currently not supported by the Btrfs tools. Doing an upgrade from one service pack to another results in snapshots occupying a lot of disk space on the system subvolumes, because a lot of data gets changed package updates.
Manually deleting these snapshots once they are no longer needed is recommended. For this purpose, Snapper is configured to create a pair of snapshots before and after each run of zypper and YaST.
Snapper also lets you restore system files that have been accidentally deleted or modified.
Hourly backups are created for this purpose. By default, automatic snapshots as described above are configured for the root partition and its subvolumes. Every time you start a YaST module or a Zypper transaction, two snapshots are created: a pre-snapshot capturing the state of the file system before the start of the module and a post-snapshot after the module has been finished. Comparing two snapshots the tools also allow you to see which files have been changed.
You can also display the differences between two versions of a file diff. Since Linux is a multitasking system, processes other than YaST or Zypper may modify data in the time frame between the pre- and the post-snapshot. If this is the case, completely reverting to the pre-snapshot will also undo these changes by other processes. In most cases this would be unwantedtherefore it is strongly recommended to closely review the changes between two snapshots before starting the rollback.
If there are changes from other processes you want to keep, select which files to roll back. Important: Limitations Make sure you know about Snapper's limitations before attempting to use its rollback mechanism. See Section 4. If this number is exceeded, the oldest snapshot s will be deleted. Procedure 4. Undoing changes using the YaST Snapper module 1. Make sure Current Configuration is set to root. This is always the case unless you have manually added own Snapper configurations.
Choose a pair of pre- and post-snapshots from the list. Click Show Changes to open the list of files that differ between the two snapshots. The following image shows a list of files that have changed after having added the user tester. Review the list of files. To display a diff between the pre- and post-version of a file, select it from the list. To restore a set of files, select the relevant files or directories by ticking the respective check box.
Click Restore Selected and confirm the action by clicking Yes. To restore a single file, activate its diff view by clicking on its name. Click Restore From First and confirm your choice with Yes. Get a list of YaST and Zypper snapshots by running snapper list -t pre-post.
Get a list of changed files for a snapshot pair with snapper status PRE.. The locate command can find in which directory a specified file is located. If desired, use wild cards to specify filenames.
The program is very fast, because it uses a database specifically created for the purpose rather than searching through the entire file system.
This very fact, however, also results in a major drawback: locate is unable to find any files created after the latest update of its database. The database can be generated by root with updatedb. To include files in all existing directories, run the program as root.
This command usually runs as a daily cron job see cron. The first argument specifies the directory in which to start the search.
The option -name must be followed by a search string, which may also include wild cards. Unlike locate, which uses a database, find scans the actual directory. Commands to Access File Contents file [options] [files] With file, detect the contents of the specified files.
Jump to the beginning or end of a file using Home and End.
Press Q to exit the program.